Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that pretends to have high blood sugar numbers and, over time, causes severe damage to the entire body if not properly managed.
Types of diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes (formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes or diabetes that begins in youth or childhood) is characterized by a severe shortage of insulin production and requires daily insulin use. This pattern is due to immunological reasons and is currently not preventable.
Symptoms of this pattern usually appear suddenly and manifest with abdominal pain and vomiting in severe cases, and may manifest less frequently with excessive urination, thirst, debility, weight loss and persistent hunger.
Type 2 diabetes:
This pattern (formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes) is caused by relative insulin deficiency and ineffectiveness, and is accelerated by overweight and physical inactivity.
Symptoms of this pattern may be similar to those of type 1, but they may often be less pronounced. The disease may be diagnosed several years after the onset of symptoms, that is, after complications.
This type of diabetes is usually encountered in adults, as it does in obese children.
Gestational diabetes mellitus:
Gestational diabetes is hyperglycemia in which blood sugar values increase at the normal level, without reaching the level needed to diagnose diabetes, and this occurs during pregnancy. Women with gestational diabetes are more likely to have complications in pregnancy and childbirth, and they and their children are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes in the future.
Gestational diabetes is diagnosed by screening for the third trimester of pregnancy, not through reported symptoms.
Pre-diabetic endurance disorder:
Diabetes tolerance is an intermediate condition in the transition from normal to diabetes. People with severe type 2 diabetes are at high risk but can prevent it, and complications may occur at this stage but to a small extent.
How to reduce the burden of diabetes?
Simple lifestyle measures have been shown to be effective in preventing or delaying type 2 diabetes. To help prevent type 2 diabetes and its complications, people should:
- Working to reach and maintain healthy weight.
- Physical activity: at least 30 minutes of moderate and regular physical activity on most days of the week. Weight control requires more physical activity.
- A healthy diet of three to five servings of fruits and vegetables a day, reducing intake of sugar, saturated fat and fiber.
- Avoid smoking, as smoking increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Diagnosis and treatment:
This disease can be diagnosed at an early stage with relatively inexpensive blood tests.
The treatment of diabetes is to improve diet and physical activity, reduce blood sugar levels and levels of other known risk factors that damage blood vessels. Quitting smoking is also important to avoid complications.
Drugs used to control blood sugar:
- Some drugs used to control blood sugar stimulate the release of insulin from the pancreas, while other drugs work to increase the sensitivity of cells to insulin and reduce the absorption of sugar from the intestines, and there are drugs that increase the excretion of sugar in the urine.
Insulin injections are an important treatment when oral hypoglycemic agents do not achieve adequate blood glucose control or when the pancreas has lost its ability to secrete insulin completely.
Cost-effective and cost-effective interventions include:
- Adjust the moderate level of blood sugar. This requires insulin to be given to people with type 1 diabetes; while people with type 2 diabetes can be treated with oral medications, they may also need insulin.
- Adjust your blood pressure level.
- Foot care.
Other cost-saving interventions include:
- Investigate and treat diabetic retinopathy (which causes blindness).
- Adjust the level of lipids and cholesterol in the blood.
- Investigate early signs of diabetes-related kidney disease.
What is the meaning of low blood sugar (Hypoglycemia)?
It is a severe, rapid and sudden drop of blood sugar level. Symptoms of depression usually occur when blood sugar levels drop below 70 mg / dL.
We should know that the level of blood sugar that causes the symptoms of hypoglycaemia varies and varies from person to person as well as for the same person under different circumstances.
Causes of low blood sugar:
- Not to eat the main meals and snacks at the specified times and in the right quantities.
- Unusual physical effort or for a long period of time.
- Raise the dose of antihypertensive drugs without consulting a doctor.
Symptoms of low blood sugar:
Symptoms usually appear progressively individually or in combination. The degrees of hypoglycaemia vary from simple to moderate and severe. Symptoms include:
- Shiver or flicker.
- Sudden severe hunger.
- Severe headache and dizziness with fatigue and fatigue.
- Profuse sweating.
- A sharp change in mood and behavior.
- Inability to concentrate.
- Heart palpitations and blurred vision.
It is necessary to detect sugar by self-analysis at home to find out the sugar and treat the decline, if any.
Treatment of hypoglycemia:
If you are conscious, you can do the following:
- A glass of sweetened juice or two teaspoons of sugar dissolved in a glass of water.
- Then wait 10-15 minutes and then test the sugar level and if you find that the blood sugar level is still under 70 mg / dl and symptoms are still present may need to repeat this every 10 minutes until you start to feel better.
- After that you must start making sure to take meals and snacks properly.
If you become unresponsive, which means that you have entered a phase of unconsciousness, a family member or colleague must expedite your transfer to the hospital where you will need to have a diabetes serum or glucagon injection.
How to avoid hypoglycemia:
- Eating the main meals and snacks on time and in the right quantities.
- Taking medications at their specified doses without increasing and punctuality.
- Take the necessary precautions when exercising (such as carrying any type of sugars, such as candy or sugar pieces).
- Discuss the doctor in charge of your treatment at the level that should have blood sugar after treatment.
- Know the symptoms associated with the attack of hypoglycemia and treatment at the beginning.
What is Hyperglycemia?
Is a condition where blood sugar is more than 200 mg / dl
Causes of high blood sugar:
- Non-compliance with taking medications as directed by the doctor.
- Eating more food than prescribed for the patient, especially sugars and starches.
- The passage of years leads to the lack of response of the body to some oral medications due to decreased pancreatic function.
- Taking medicines that raise blood sugar, such as corticosteroids.
- Do not exercise regularly.
- Stress, anxiety and stress.
- Some conditions such as infections.
Symptoms of hyperglycemia:
- Extraordinarily thirsty.
- Blurred and blurred vision.
- Feeling tired and tired.
- Severe headache.
- Pain and numbness in the extremities with a feeling of heat or cold.
If the rise in blood sugar for a long time, the substance appears in urine and blood and accompanied by the following symptoms:
- Pain and cramps in the abdomen.
- Nausea and a desire to vomit.
- The appearance of the smell of vinegar from the mouth, which is similar to the smell of old fermented apples.
- Dryness and weight loss.
- Loss of consciousness and fainting.
Treatment of high blood sugar:
- Commitment to rest and not to exercise any physical effort.
- Drink plenty of water and sugar-free liquids.
- Continue taking medications on time and according to the doctor's instructions.
- Eat meals regularly.
- Eat snacks every 2 - 3 hours.
- Detection of blood sugar and ketone in the urine every 6 hours.
Avoiding high blood sugar:
- Take medicines on time and according to the doctor's instructions.
- Adhere to the diet of basic and light meals.
- Exercise appropriate and regular exercise.
- Control stress and stress as much as possible.
- Treatment of colds and acute infections immediately.
- Commitment to household tests to measure blood sugar and record the results for review with specialists.
- Routine follow-up with the attending physician.